Eye Anatomy and Eye Sight Complications

Scanning electron micrograph of a blood vessel in the iris of the human eye

Eye sight is a person’s capability of interpreting surroundings and information from the effects of visible light that comes in contact with the eye. The result of this contact is perception, which is more commonly known as eye sight. Over the lifetime of any person, this eye sight can very easily be depleted due to natural causes or even injury and accidents. If the deterioration of the eye sight is due to natural causes, it stands a chance of being preserved through glasses or contact lenses.

Eye Anatomy

  • Optic Nerve: The optic nerve brings necessary information from the eye’s retina to the brain. The optic nerve fails to regenerate after transection. This part of the eye is derived from the embryonic retinal ganglion cell.
  • Macula: The macula, which can also be called the macula lutea, is a very pigmented, oval-shaped and yellow spot close to the retina of the eye. With a diameter of approximately 5 millimeters, the macula usually possesses at least two ganglion cells.
  • Fovea: The fovea, also sometimes known as the fovea centralis, is situated in the center of the macula area of the retina. The purpose of the fovea is to enable the sharp central vision that enables you to fully take part in activities like reading, driving and watching television.
  • Retina: The retina is a tissue that lines the inner surface of the eye; it is sensitive to light. The eye’s optics fashion an image of the visual world right on the retina itself. In this way, it is similar to the film inside a camera.
  • Iris: The iris is a circular and thin structure in the eye. The function of this part of the eye is to regulate the size and the diameter of the pupils and therefore the degree of light that gets to the retina. The color of people’s eyes is what the color of the iris is, which usually is brown, blue or green.
  • Cornea: The cornea is the front part of your eye that is transparent. The cornea covers the eye’s pupil, iris and also its anterior chamber.
  • Pupil: The pupil is the hole situated in the center of the eye’s iris; it permits light to enter into the eye. It is black in color since much of the light going into the pupil is absorbed by the eye’s tissues.
  • Lens: The lens is a biconvex and transparent structure in the eye. It aids in the refraction of light to be focused on the eye’s retina.

Eye Complications and Disorders

  • Cataracts: Cataracts are clouding that develop on the crystalline lens of your eye or on its envelope. Cataracts can vary in intensity from subtle to total opacity and blocking out the passage of light.
  • Glaucoma: Glaucoma is a type of eye disorder where the optic nerve endures damage. The effect of glaucoma is that it completely damages vision in the eye that is affected and then turns into total blindness if left untreated.
  • Holms-Aide Syndrome: Holms-Aide Syndrome can also be referred to as Adie’s Tonic Pupil or just Adie Syndrome. It is a neurological disorder defined by a pupil that is tonically dilated.
  • Microvascular Cranial Nerve Palsy: Microvascular Cranial Nerve Palsy is a palsy that is one of the most frequent reasons behind the onset of double vision among older folks. People who have high blood pressure and diabetes are more susceptible to this palsy.
  • Nystagmus: Nystagmus is a type of involuntary eye movement. It is a part of the vestibulo-ocular reflex. This condition is typified by alternating, smooth pursuit in just one direction while saccadic movement occurs in the other direction.
  • Pinguecula: Pinguecula is a conjunctival degeneration of the eye, which is quite common. It appears as white-yellowish deposit on the conjunctiva, which is adjacent to the limbus.
  • Proptosis: Proptosis is also referred to as exophthalmos. Proptosis is when the eye actually bulges out in an anterior fashion from the orbit. It can be unilateral or bilateral, as is the case in an orbital tumor or in the case of Graves’ disease.
  • Pterygium: Pterygium is called Surfer’s Eye, and it most commonly relates to a growth that is benign, which is found on the conjunctiva.
  • Strabismus: Strabismus is a condition that is typified by the eyes not being aligned with each other. It is based on the eyes failing to have coordination between its extraocular muscles.

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